“Save the Birds” Fish Farms – An Unconventional Approach

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“Save the Birds” Fish Farms – An Unconventional Approach

As I sit at my desk contemplating the countless stories of horrific loss suffered by fish farmers over the years, plus my personal discussions with others interested in “protecting wildlife”, I feel compelled to report on a unique solution.

The fact is that Superior Aquaculture’s In Pond, Floating Raceway System™ is working hard today in many areas, sometimes preventing 100% bird predation and related loses. As a no-cost bi-product, the system is also preventing a huge annual loss from disease and wounding.

Conscientious fish farmers continue to face a challenging up-hill fight to protect their crops---especially in the face of the many imports and climatic shifts. Even with potential Returns On Investment (ROI’s) of less than a year, it can be tough to source the extra capital. So… not intending to be “over the top” humorous, I would like to suggest the concept that groups interested in further protecting predacious, fish eating birds, consider partnering with fish farmers to help capitalize the necessary investments. While this MUST be making someone smile, the SCIENTIFIC FACTS below are no joking matter.

  • Bird predation can cost 47-53% of production.

  • A one night loss of $20,000 can easily occur.

  • 2002 cost to U.S. catfish industry > $25 MILLION.

  • Bird predation is spiking, fueled in part by climatic shifts.

  • 50% of fish catches are aborted by cormorants.

  • Cormorants can consume greater than 1 Lb. of fish per day. We have a photo of over 200 yellow perch fingerlings (about 2-2.5 inches long) found in one cormorant.

  • In one study, 47% of 2 year old carp were injured with scars on 35% of body area.

  • Scarred fish are very difficult to sell.

  • “White pelicans came in one night and cleaned-out my ponds. I’m out of the fish business, and don’t know what I’m going to do”. (Personal communique from S.E Arkansas, 2019.)

  • “White cormorants can consume up to 2 Lbs. of fish per day and can shed thousands of eggs of the Bolbophorus catfish trematode during a single visit to ponds. This bird can have a disastrous effect on catfish production.” (SRAC Pub. No. 401)

  • Herons and even kingfishers are additional key links in “yellow grubs” and “black spot” disease. 

  • Parasite infested or diseased fish are very difficult to sell.

  • Birds are known to “herd” fish, which can create over-crowding, O2 depletion, and resultant chronic stress causing disease, poor growth, etc.

Superior Aquaculture’s Raceways provide uniquely effective protection.

Forget about night patrols and get some sleep. Superior Aquaculture can have you “covered”.

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Assessing Red Tide Damage off the Florida Coast

Dr. Jay at the helm. “Eyes on the target”, as we assess Red Tide damage off the Florida coast, Gulf of Mexico, March 2019.

Dr. Jay at the helm. “Eyes on the target”, as we assess Red Tide damage off the Florida coast, Gulf of Mexico, March 2019.

Good to know that Superior Aquaculture’s floating raceways have been shown to collect more phosphorous from surrounding waters than the phosphorous in the fish feed. Actually a potential net no-cost water rehabilitation tool!

So glad to be part of the solution and not a part of the problem.

All aquaculture is NOT equal.

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Safe Harbors for Turbulent Times

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Safe Harbors for Turbulent Times

It appears that once again we are living in times of tribulation. The present examples of largely dysfunctional governments and world-wide social unrest might suggest that investors “return to the basics” with their investment strategies. FOOD is always a very popular and most basic priority.

Creating a safe harbor for investments via shortening the food supply chain can be a significant risk management opportunity. Locally produced, high quality, healthy foods will always be toward the top of the basic priority list. High intensity, outdoor, sustainable production of fish in almost any climate can be a rewarding and fulfilling investment for almost anyone.

Superior Aquaculture LLC, in cooperation with client growers, university researchers, and associates, was extremely busy during 2018. The result was a further increase in efficiency and simplicity in its already well-documented, patented, and highly successful system.

For latest developments, “stay tuned”, give us a call, or …


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Minnesota Floating Raceways Ice-Free All Winter

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Minnesota Floating Raceways Ice-Free All Winter

Superior Aquaculture Floating Raceways reported “ice-free all winter, after a real, old-fashioned winter” in Minnesota. While other clients using Superior Raceways in other far north environments such as northern Wisconsin, northern Ontario, and Alberta, Canada for numerous years have reported no problems with winter ice, this is the first winter that the 60,000 gal units have been “ice-free all winter”.

Super High Intensity Aquaculture Airlift

This is also the first client- reported winter test of the 60,000 gallon raceways utilizing the new Superior HDPE Rectangular Airlift™.

Interestingly, the ice-free conditions were maintained with the airlifts extending only 4 feet below the water’s surface. Thus, the results are attributable strictly to the exceptionally high flow capacity of the new airlifts. (Approximately 1 hp./raceway.) Extending the airlifts’ chutes downward can achieve additional and significant surface water temperature mediation by drawing from > 20 ft. down – in both winter and in summer.

Believed to be the most efficient water-moving airlifts manufactured today, Superior’s HDPE Rectangular Airlift™ designs are university-reported to create flow rates of about 3,300 gpm/hp. In comparison, research from the U.S.D.A.’s Aquaculture Research Service Annual Report (2011) reports on a (then) new “Active Invention” (Docket No: U0110.11) that involves injection of O2 at depths of about 20 feet to achieve exceptional aeration, but “water flow rates of (only) 1,075-1,831 gpm/hp” – which the report also suggests is better than the common paddlewheel aerators found in many catfish ponds.

The significance of this new technological advance in airlifts will have massive, positive impacts on fish health, water quality, economics, and all aspects of aquaculture.

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Is Lack of Critically Essential TAURINE Undermining Your Production?

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Is Lack of Critically Essential TAURINE Undermining Your Production?

Taurine, which most fish farmers have never heard of, is a critically essential sulfonic amino-acid.  It is a substance that fish cannot synthesis from other dietary ingredients, but has been provided to some extent in taurine-rich ingredients like fishmeal. 

As the available sources and costs of quality fishmeal have become major issues in aquaculture world-wide, the potential lack of this ingredient may already be a major road block in production.  Replacement of fishmeal with terrestrial plants like soybeans will not solve this problem as land-based plants cannot produce taurine.

Fortunately for outdoor culturists, there exists an excellent opportunity to utilize the very significant quantities of taurine produced by various algae, which, in turn, can be bio-accumulated in zooplankton, minnows, etc., and then fed to the prime animals cultured.  Just another advantage of outdoor aquaculture and the naturally-raised feed that can be collected in floating raceways.

According to researchers at KnipBio, “…taurine deficiencies can lead to reduced growth and survival for many relevant finfish species, increasing their susceptibility to diseases and impairing larval development.  Taurine is critical to basic cellular and physiological processes such as membrane stabilization, detoxification, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and anti-oxidation.”

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Hurricane Irma and Superior Raceways – See the Impact

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Hurricane Irma and Superior Raceways – See the Impact

Hurricane Irma, packing 110 mph sustained winds, gusts to 140 mph, a storm surge of 8 feet, 10 inches of rain, and regional flooding were no match for Superior Aquaculture’s Model 48,000 floating raceway system. Praise God! We are humbled and greatly appreciative for the unscathed survivability of these units, and the outstanding management protocols of their owners.  It should be noted that these raceways are located in very southwest Florida and very close to the most intense impacts of the storm.

All of the raceways’ residents and the raceways, themselves, are reported to be undamaged and without any losses. Emergency auxiliary power and dock-mounted blowers allowed the entire system to simply float upward as water levels rose, insuring an uninterrupted flow of aerated water to all inhabitants.

Hurricane Irma, packing 110 mph sustained winds, gusts to 140 mph, a storm surge of 8 feet, 10 inches of rain, and regional flooding were no match for Superior Aquaculture's Model 48,000 floating raceway system.

A short “Day After” video and additional supportive data concerning smaller units and their survival for more than four years in the middle of the Everglades is available for those interested and serious.

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Banking Sunshine

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Banking Sunshine

A Key to Smart Aquaculture Investing

Bloomberg.com recently reported that, “Aquaculture is drawing entrepreneurs and investors in an overfished world with a growing appetite for healthy protein.” The article raises many questions, but offers little investment advice or specific scientific solutions.

While investors are all too familiar with “follow the money”, we would like to propose a new perspective — “follow the energy”. Production of all products requires a specific amount of energy for the task.  Commercial fish farming is no different.  It requires significant amounts of energy in the form of feed (chemical energy and nutrients) comprising about 40-50% of variable operating expenses, electrical energy for pumps, aeration, etc., plus transportation-related energy for workers, product, and supplies.

The Bloomberg report suggests the use of land-sourced human food such as soybeans as a replacement for fishmeal, but this seems of little benefit to world hunger, and in fact, may be downright unhealthy — for both fish and consumers.

“Follow the energy”! Where does most agricultural energy come from? If you answered “the sun”, you’re now holding the key to unlocking the puzzle. The sun is the obvious energy source driving the growth of almost all land-based, traditional farming. So why not utilize the sun for fish farming?

Why not cultivate the fastest growing, most solar efficient, high protein, and healthy plants in the world right in our own waterways, allowing these tiny solar cells to absorb and feed on the water’s excess nutrients? Well, this is close to what some algae collecting systems are trying, but the economics of fertilizing, circulating, collecting, dewatering, and often extensive further processing can be cost prohibitive — without government funding.

However, a recently refined aquaculture system developed by Superior Aquaculture, LLC, now offers a suite of integrated, unique solutions to the above issues. Its simplicity is based upon “following the energy”:

  • Solar collect the sun’s energy with algae.
  • Enhance its free cultivation and collection strictly as a by-product of water circulated through large, floating, and relatively inexpensive fish raceways.
  • Bio-accumulate algae nutrients, including large amounts of lipids, especially omega-3’s in algae consuming zooplankton and filter-feeding finfish and shellfish — the later grown and fed (for free) both within and outside the raceways.
  • Collect in sedimentation collection pods, excess algae and zooplankton, uneaten commercial feed (if fed), and feces.
  • Discharge soluble nutrients from the raceway to feed younger algae cells.
  • Dewater sediments collected and further process, if desired, using as feed, feed supplements, compost, or for valuable oil removed simply by pressing and gravity.
  • Water flow rates, turbidity readings, dissolved air flocculation (DAF), and other mechanisms can be employed and automated to help monitor, balance, and maintain optimal pond and raceway production levels.

Sustainably produce healthier, omega-3 enriched fish and shellfish using largely on-farm produced nutrients, while maintaining or improving water quality and potentially seeing an amazing ROI.

To learn more, visit www.superiorraceways.com .  Phone: 715-340-0932

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U.S.D.A. Grants of 25% for Superior Raceways

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U.S.D.A. Grants of 25% for Superior Raceways

U.S.D.A. is now offering Energy Efficiency Improvement GRANTS of 25% for, “any improvements to a facility, building, or process that reduces energy consumption.” The application deadline is March 31, 2017.

Superior Raceway Systems meet these requirements.  Total project costs should be over $6,000.  Projects with total eligible costs of less than $80,000 receive priority for funding.

Future funding is always uncertain, so time may be limited.  Those interested are invited to contact Superior Aquaculture, LLC for details and suggested routes for expedited processing.

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Preventing Catastrophic Fish Farm Failure

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Preventing Catastrophic Fish Farm Failure

Catastrophic events are the Number 1 Killer of well-intentioned, unprepared, medium–high intensity fish farms. Losses encountered can often lead to complete business failure.  Unmitigated or poorly-timed interventions during periods of unexpected electrical power outages are the Number 1 catastrophic event. 

Any farm that aerates or moves water can be at risk. The greater the fish density, the greater the risk. While this applies to both indoor RAS and outdoor “RAS within a pond”, outdoor farms tend to have more intervention opportunities.

How can this risk be eliminated or reduced? A good back-up system is NOT enough, unless you have a hobby farm and can afford to lose your crop.

Good “crop security” mandates REDUNDANT BACK-UP SYSTEMS.  Power outage warning systems with text and voice auto-dialers, etc, are fine, but “Power On” does not equate to “O2 On”. While power outage warnings are good and can help provide early warnings, they do not monitor against blower failures, manifold leaks, or numerous other system failures. Therefore, O2 monitoring is also strongly encouraged.

Blower failure can be off-set somewhat via multiple blowers connected to a common manifold with possible solenoid-activated start-ups, valves, or discharge sharing.

Good prevention starts with solid planning, which may start small and with minimal investment, but then grows more robust as the value of the crop increases.

Because “aquaculture is now agriculture” under federal and most state laws, crop insurance is always worth investigating.

“Eyes-on” may not be the most favorite tool in the tool box, especially in this age of automation, but it should not be under-rated. While live-feed video and water quality data can be available 24/7, on a world-wide basis via satellite, there is no substitution for motivated, human observation. When there is doubt, it’s great to have someone living close to the farm, especially for temporary interventions, such as starting a “self-starting” generator.

Fish farmers using or interested in “In-Pond Raceway Systems (IPRS’s)” are invited to contact Superior Aquaculture for additional, sometime innovative suggestions for “Backing-up Your Back-ups”.

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Human Disease Increase Mirrors Decreased Omega-3’s

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Human Disease Increase Mirrors Decreased Omega-3’s

Chronic Degenerative Diseases (CDD’s), the “Who’s Who” of today’s killer diseases, e.g. cancers, heart disease, diabetes, and dementia have replaced the contagious diseases of yesterday, e.g. rickets, scurvy, and the plague.

The increase of CDD’s and developmental disabilities over the last 100 years is a mirror image of our plummeting history of lower omega-3 consumption, sourced primarily from fish. Antioxidant omega-3’s have been replaced by pro-inflammatory omega-6’s, sourced primarily from soy beans, sun flower, cotton seed, and related plants. (Now it’s also happening in our fish feed.) Oxidative stress at the cellular level is the well-known cause of most CDD’s.

Most critical is the ratio of omega 3’s to 6’s. Fifty to one hundred years ago, that ratio was about a healthy 1:3. Today, the ratio is more like 1: 17. Not good!

First, we have made our society perpetually ill, neurologically ill-equipped, and drug-dependent through our over-indulgence in processed foods and heavy doses of omega-6’s. Now, we’re doing the same thing to our fish, and in the process, removing one of our last bastions providing us with ESSENTIAL omega-3’s.

Superior Aquaculture stands ready to assist those who might be interested in exploring alternative options.

 

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Hatchery Bred Salmon Survival 10 to 20 Times Less Than Wild

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Hatchery Bred Salmon Survival 10 to 20 Times Less Than Wild

“Billions of hatchery-bred juvenile salmon are released…every year, and their survival is between 10 and 20 times less than that of wild salmon.” (Reimer and Dodd, Scientific Reports, 2016.) Could this be related to our last 2 releases, i.e. hearing deformities, lower omega-3 content in fish, and reduced omega-3 content in fish feeds? 

Look for our next release focused on what all this means for the planet’s top predator

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Hatchery Bred Salmon Found Hearing Impaired

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Hatchery Bred Salmon Found Hearing Impaired

As many as half of the world’s hatchery-bred salmon have trouble hearing, according to a study published recently in Scientific Reports. The hearing loss is owing to a deformity of the sagittal otolith, the primary hearing structure of the inner ear. Could this be tied to the omega-3, fish feed deficiencies described in our previous release? (Source: WHITE PAPER, SPECIAL Hatchery and Fisheries Research Report,  Warecki, J; June 2016.)

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Superior Aquaculture to Provide 50% Increase in Omega-3’s

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Superior Aquaculture to Provide 50% Increase in Omega-3’s

Recent studies show that Superior Aquaculture’s (SA’s) “In Pond Floating Raceway Systems” (IPFRS) can potentially increase the omega-3 content of many farmed fish by about 50%.  This follows on the heels of a recent study by Stirling University that reveals that, “…the amount of omega-3 fatty acid (an anti-oxidant) in farmed salmon in the UK has decreased by 50% in the past 10 years”.

This means that consumers would now need to consume twice as much salmon to obtain the same amount of omega-3’s as they did 10 years ago. The cause is linked to less fish and more pro-inflammatory soybeans in commercial fish feeds.

SA’s system allows for capture and feeding of live, wild, omega-3 rich, zooplankton and phytoplankton while reducing the fertility of the surrounding water. Plankton processing can yield massive amounts of high-value nutrients and oils for a wide array of human health and animal feed supplements. Reader inquiries are welcomed.

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As Seen In Fish Farming News!

Thanks again to ”Fish Farming News” and their recent article providing further in-sights into some of the early pioneers of Floating In-pond Raceways.

More significantly, we would like to thank Bob Robinson of Fish Farming News for his most current, independent assessment of today’s new-age, In-pond Raceway Systems.

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Mosquito and Zika Virus Control Via In-Pond Floating, Fish Raceways

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Mosquito and Zika Virus Control Via In-Pond Floating, Fish Raceways


By:  Jay Warecki, Ph.D.
Director, Medical Research Education Associates
Director, Superior Aquaculture, LLC


The U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have reported that mosquito control measures are now the most effective means of controlling the spread of the Zika virus, West Nile virus, plus dengue, and yellow fever.  Mosquito control and related public health issues will become increasingly significant in the immediate future, and effective counter-measures should become everyone’s priority.

Pond owners may soon view their once-beautiful ponds near their homes as the breeding grounds for disease – especially as our climatic and global weather patterns change.  Environmental health problems of the tropics and sub-tropics are rapidly becoming the problems of the mid-latitudes.

Mosquito control via species and size-specific stocking of fish has long been a main-stay of public health efforts in tropical and sub-tropical regions, including parts of the Southeastern U.S.  Maintaining such stockings in appropriate densities, however, can become a difficult challenge.

Floating In-Pond Raceways™ developed by Superior Aquaculture, LLC offer new and impressive options for owners of all surface waters, e.g. ponds, marshes, reservoirs, or estuaries, who are interested in sustainable, affordable, and non-chemical solutions to mosquito control.

Fish stocked in open ponds tend to favor localized areas such as shorelines, for feeding. But…mosquito larvae tend to cover the entire pond.  This normally results in less than optimal mosquito larvae predation.

In-Pond Floating Raceways accomplish outstanding mosquito control through two mechanisms:

  1. Widespread pond circulating that eliminates stagnant water, and
  2. Concentrated larvae capture and delivery to high-density, larvae-loving fish.

Major pond circulation is a “free” by-product of the raceway system that uses highly efficient, low-head, airlifts to move pond water through the floating raceways.  Highly energy efficient water movement not only brings fresh, oxygenated pond water, larvae, and other ‘’planktonic candy” to the ever-appreciative, larvae-loving fish in the raceways, but with flow rates as much as 10,000 gallons per minute per raceway, it can have a major impact on improving the pond’s water quality – including the reduction of blue-green algae. The raceway system’s sediment collection pods near the exit ends collect the uneaten fish feed and feces.

Since the above floating raceway system is designed to operate as a cutting-edge, income-producing technology of almost any size, mosquito larvae control and its impact on reducing the Zika virus and other mosquito-borne illness is a no-cost bonus for personal and public health.

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Why Invest in Aquaculture?

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Why Invest in Aquaculture?

Well-informed investments in intense, outdoor, surface water aquaculture may be essential for the planet. While surface water covers about 75% of the earth, it now produces only 2% of its food. Commercial fish stocks are in peril and cannot help. Still, it’s projected that the world will need to produce 50% more food by 2050.

A major part of the solution may be found in widespread establishment of what’s called Integrated Multi-tropic Aquaculture (IMTA). Superior Aquaculture is at the cutting-edge of this technology.

Briefly, here’s how it works. Happy, schooling fish are grown fairly intensely and fed in Superior’s floating, in-pond (salt or freshwater) raceways. Most of the uneaten feed and feces are captured and re-cycled. The soluble nutrients contained in the fish urine, which escapes to the water, is absorbed by the algae. The pond’s algae acts like a biological solar collector, absorbing the light energy and CO2 from the air. The algae then converts the CO2 and absorbed nutrients to chemical energy, oxygen, water, and very valuable (essential) nutrients, especially omega-3’s.

If that wasn’t enough, the algae also feeds the much larger zooplankton, which with the algae, can be collected as by-products of the raceway operation. The use of these valuable products is almost unlimited.

Zooplankton (on left) grown for young fry or fingerlings in adjacent raceway.

Use of the captured zooplankton and algae as on-farm feed supplements is proven to reduce the amount of commercial feed needed, reduce the amount of the fishmeal component sometimes needed, improve feed conversion ratios (FCR’s) to sometimes less than 1:1, strengthen fish autoimmune systems, improve growth rates, and even to provide healthier, omega-3-enriched fish for human consumption.

As commercial fish feeds continuously become more soy and cottonseed-based, their high levels of pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative omega-6’s, which can lead to fatty liver disease in fish and diabetes in humans, must be countered by increased levels of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant omega-3’s.

In Summary: IMTA (when practiced wisely) solar energy capture, CO2 reduction, O2 production (about 75% of world’s total), energy, cleaner water, reduced need for wild fish for fish feed; essential nutrient production, capture, and use; healthier, faster-growing fish, plus a healthier, more neurologically appropriate population.

(Extreme due diligence is advised for all aquaculture investments.)

 

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Hands-on Customer Service - Moving Off Shore

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Hands-on Customer Service - Moving Off Shore

Customer Service that keeps on giving.  Dr Jay (in bright green) and Bonnie (naturally with camera) volunteer 4 days of time to assist Native American tribe - three years after raceway purchase.  

“We had a GREAT time fellowshipping and assisting other volunteers in this community-building activity.  This is what we’re really all about”, said Dr. Jay.

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U.S. Trout Farmers Association – Highly Recommended

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U.S. Trout Farmers Association – Highly Recommended

The U.S. Trout Farmers Association (USTFA), truly a leadership group for all fish farmers.  What an incredible conference, hosted by Peter Fritsch at Rushing Waters Trout Farm in Wisconsin!

The background photo characterizes the servant leadership role of so many in this group – in this case preparing another rack of grilled fish for attendees.

Superior Aquaculture strongly encourages all of its valued customers and prospects to join-up with the many other USTFA farmers, most of which have a long history of successful raceway use.

 

For more info on USTFA, contact: Tom Ellis, (919) 909-1943, ustroutfarmersassociation@gmail.com

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How to Reduce Phosphorus Discharge from Fish Farms (Summary)

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How to Reduce Phosphorus Discharge from Fish Farms (Summary)

Compiled by: Jay Warecki, Ph.D.
Director, Superior Aquaculture, LLC
(Report Released Sept., 2015)

  1. Fish Feed is normally the largest source of phosphorus to aquaculture systems.
  2. Approximately 70% of the phosphorus consumed can pass in feces. (Hakanson, et al. 1990)
  3. Similarly, Brown found that, “…the collected and dried waste from the raceways equaled 70.8% of the dry weight fed.”  (Brown, 2010)
  4. Additionally, in many cases, only 50 % of the total nutrients fed are utilized by the fish.
  5. Superior Floating Raceways offer the ability to effectively capture and remove, either automatically or manually, some huge percentage of the nutrient-rich feces.
  6. Specially integrated sediment collection pods are available and recommended.
  7. Because phosphorus rapidly leaches from feces, the feces should be removed every 6-36 hours, depending upon load, feed qualities, temperature, pH, etc.  (kabria, et al. 1997)
  8. Collected feces can be used in aquaponics, de-watered and fed to other animals, or used in fertilizers, mulch, etc.
  9. In addition to feces collection, the system also collects virtually all uneaten, settleable feed – which contains additional phosphorus.
  10. Uneaten feed and feces, “… are believed to contain most of their phosphorus in a water soluble, unstable form readily available to plants.”  (Butz and Vens-Cappell, 1982)
  11. While soluble reactive phosphorus in the form of fish urine may be minor in comparison to feces, it should be mitigated as possible.
  12. When Superior Floating Raceways are used in a pond setting, the soluble reactive phosphorus from the urine can be absorbed by macrophytes, algae, and bottom sediments – which can be quite acceptable when within reason.
  13. However, Superior Raceways offer the farmer a means of collecting the dissolved fraction of P once it has been absorbed by the algae. The fact is that the raceways serve as excellent “traps” for both algae and valuable zooplankton.
  14. “The phosphorus collected in the raceways was actually greater (138%) than the total phosphorus fed in the fish feed.”  (Brown, 2010)  This was attributed to the phosphorus in the lipid-rich algae and valuable and zooplankton.
  15. Further reductions in raceway nutrient discharge can be achieved by the addition of in-line, small particle, collection modules – as commonly used in in-door RAS operations.
  16. Fish farm settling ponds offer opportunities for both increased levels of phosphorus extraction and potential production expansions.

To discuss your potential application or to view the “complete report”, give us a call or contact us by email.


References
Brown, Travis. 2010. Intensive Culture…in a Commercial-Scale, In-Pond Raceway. Ph.D. Dissertation, Auburn University.

Butz, I. & Vens-Cappell, 1982. Organic load from metabolic products of rainbow trout fed with dry food. In Albaster, J.S. (ed), Report of the EIFAC Workshop on Fish Farm Effluents, EIFAC Tech. Pap. 41:57-70.

Kibria, G.D. Nugegoda, R. Fairclough, & P. Lam. Hydrobiologia 357: 165-171, 1997. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

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