Is Lack of Critically Essential TAURINE Undermining Your Production?

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Is Lack of Critically Essential TAURINE Undermining Your Production?

Taurine, which most fish farmers have never heard of, is a critically essential sulfonic amino-acid.  It is a substance that fish cannot synthesis from other dietary ingredients, but has been provided to some extent in taurine-rich ingredients like fishmeal. 

As the available sources and costs of quality fishmeal have become major issues in aquaculture world-wide, the potential lack of this ingredient may already be a major road block in production.  Replacement of fishmeal with terrestrial plants like soybeans will not solve this problem as land-based plants cannot produce taurine.

Fortunately for outdoor culturists, there exists an excellent opportunity to utilize the very significant quantities of taurine produced by various algae, which, in turn, can be bio-accumulated in zooplankton, minnows, etc., and then fed to the prime animals cultured.  Just another advantage of outdoor aquaculture and the naturally-raised feed that can be collected in floating raceways.

According to researchers at KnipBio, “…taurine deficiencies can lead to reduced growth and survival for many relevant finfish species, increasing their susceptibility to diseases and impairing larval development.  Taurine is critical to basic cellular and physiological processes such as membrane stabilization, detoxification, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and anti-oxidation.”

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Hurricane Irma and Superior Raceways – See the Impact

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Hurricane Irma and Superior Raceways – See the Impact

Hurricane Irma, packing 110 mph sustained winds, gusts to 140 mph, a storm surge of 8 feet, 10 inches of rain, and regional flooding were no match for Superior Aquaculture’s Model 48,000 floating raceway system. Praise God! We are humbled and greatly appreciative for the unscathed survivability of these units, and the outstanding management protocols of their owners.  It should be noted that these raceways are located in very southwest Florida and very close to the most intense impacts of the storm.

All of the raceways’ residents and the raceways, themselves, are reported to be undamaged and without any losses. Emergency auxiliary power and dock-mounted blowers allowed the entire system to simply float upward as water levels rose, insuring an uninterrupted flow of aerated water to all inhabitants.

Hurricane Irma, packing 110 mph sustained winds, gusts to 140 mph, a storm surge of 8 feet, 10 inches of rain, and regional flooding were no match for Superior Aquaculture's Model 48,000 floating raceway system.

A short “Day After” video and additional supportive data concerning smaller units and their survival for more than four years in the middle of the Everglades is available for those interested and serious.

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Banking Sunshine

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Banking Sunshine

A Key to Smart Aquaculture Investing

Bloomberg.com recently reported that, “Aquaculture is drawing entrepreneurs and investors in an overfished world with a growing appetite for healthy protein.” The article raises many questions, but offers little investment advice or specific scientific solutions.

While investors are all too familiar with “follow the money”, we would like to propose a new perspective — “follow the energy”. Production of all products requires a specific amount of energy for the task.  Commercial fish farming is no different.  It requires significant amounts of energy in the form of feed (chemical energy and nutrients) comprising about 40-50% of variable operating expenses, electrical energy for pumps, aeration, etc., plus transportation-related energy for workers, product, and supplies.

The Bloomberg report suggests the use of land-sourced human food such as soybeans as a replacement for fishmeal, but this seems of little benefit to world hunger, and in fact, may be downright unhealthy — for both fish and consumers.

“Follow the energy”! Where does most agricultural energy come from? If you answered “the sun”, you’re now holding the key to unlocking the puzzle. The sun is the obvious energy source driving the growth of almost all land-based, traditional farming. So why not utilize the sun for fish farming?

Why not cultivate the fastest growing, most solar efficient, high protein, and healthy plants in the world right in our own waterways, allowing these tiny solar cells to absorb and feed on the water’s excess nutrients? Well, this is close to what some algae collecting systems are trying, but the economics of fertilizing, circulating, collecting, dewatering, and often extensive further processing can be cost prohibitive — without government funding.

However, a recently refined aquaculture system developed by Superior Aquaculture, LLC, now offers a suite of integrated, unique solutions to the above issues. Its simplicity is based upon “following the energy”:

  • Solar collect the sun’s energy with algae.
  • Enhance its free cultivation and collection strictly as a by-product of water circulated through large, floating, and relatively inexpensive fish raceways.
  • Bio-accumulate algae nutrients, including large amounts of lipids, especially omega-3’s in algae consuming zooplankton and filter-feeding finfish and shellfish — the later grown and fed (for free) both within and outside the raceways.
  • Collect in sedimentation collection pods, excess algae and zooplankton, uneaten commercial feed (if fed), and feces.
  • Discharge soluble nutrients from the raceway to feed younger algae cells.
  • Dewater sediments collected and further process, if desired, using as feed, feed supplements, compost, or for valuable oil removed simply by pressing and gravity.
  • Water flow rates, turbidity readings, dissolved air flocculation (DAF), and other mechanisms can be employed and automated to help monitor, balance, and maintain optimal pond and raceway production levels.

Sustainably produce healthier, omega-3 enriched fish and shellfish using largely on-farm produced nutrients, while maintaining or improving water quality and potentially seeing an amazing ROI.

To learn more, visit www.superiorraceways.com .  Phone: 715-340-0932

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U.S.D.A. Grants of 25% for Superior Raceways

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U.S.D.A. Grants of 25% for Superior Raceways

U.S.D.A. is now offering Energy Efficiency Improvement GRANTS of 25% for, “any improvements to a facility, building, or process that reduces energy consumption.” The application deadline is March 31, 2017.

Superior Raceway Systems meet these requirements.  Total project costs should be over $6,000.  Projects with total eligible costs of less than $80,000 receive priority for funding.

Future funding is always uncertain, so time may be limited.  Those interested are invited to contact Superior Aquaculture, LLC for details and suggested routes for expedited processing.

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Preventing Catastrophic Fish Farm Failure

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Preventing Catastrophic Fish Farm Failure

Catastrophic events are the Number 1 Killer of well-intentioned, unprepared, medium–high intensity fish farms. Losses encountered can often lead to complete business failure.  Unmitigated or poorly-timed interventions during periods of unexpected electrical power outages are the Number 1 catastrophic event. 

Any farm that aerates or moves water can be at risk. The greater the fish density, the greater the risk. While this applies to both indoor RAS and outdoor “RAS within a pond”, outdoor farms tend to have more intervention opportunities.

How can this risk be eliminated or reduced? A good back-up system is NOT enough, unless you have a hobby farm and can afford to lose your crop.

Good “crop security” mandates REDUNDANT BACK-UP SYSTEMS.  Power outage warning systems with text and voice auto-dialers, etc, are fine, but “Power On” does not equate to “O2 On”. While power outage warnings are good and can help provide early warnings, they do not monitor against blower failures, manifold leaks, or numerous other system failures. Therefore, O2 monitoring is also strongly encouraged.

Blower failure can be off-set somewhat via multiple blowers connected to a common manifold with possible solenoid-activated start-ups, valves, or discharge sharing.

Good prevention starts with solid planning, which may start small and with minimal investment, but then grows more robust as the value of the crop increases.

Because “aquaculture is now agriculture” under federal and most state laws, crop insurance is always worth investigating.

“Eyes-on” may not be the most favorite tool in the tool box, especially in this age of automation, but it should not be under-rated. While live-feed video and water quality data can be available 24/7, on a world-wide basis via satellite, there is no substitution for motivated, human observation. When there is doubt, it’s great to have someone living close to the farm, especially for temporary interventions, such as starting a “self-starting” generator.

Fish farmers using or interested in “In-Pond Raceway Systems (IPRS’s)” are invited to contact Superior Aquaculture for additional, sometime innovative suggestions for “Backing-up Your Back-ups”.

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Human Disease Increase Mirrors Decreased Omega-3’s

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Human Disease Increase Mirrors Decreased Omega-3’s

Chronic Degenerative Diseases (CDD’s), the “Who’s Who” of today’s killer diseases, e.g. cancers, heart disease, diabetes, and dementia have replaced the contagious diseases of yesterday, e.g. rickets, scurvy, and the plague.

The increase of CDD’s and developmental disabilities over the last 100 years is a mirror image of our plummeting history of lower omega-3 consumption, sourced primarily from fish. Antioxidant omega-3’s have been replaced by pro-inflammatory omega-6’s, sourced primarily from soy beans, sun flower, cotton seed, and related plants. (Now it’s also happening in our fish feed.) Oxidative stress at the cellular level is the well-known cause of most CDD’s.

Most critical is the ratio of omega 3’s to 6’s. Fifty to one hundred years ago, that ratio was about a healthy 1:3. Today, the ratio is more like 1: 17. Not good!

First, we have made our society perpetually ill, neurologically ill-equipped, and drug-dependent through our over-indulgence in processed foods and heavy doses of omega-6’s. Now, we’re doing the same thing to our fish, and in the process, removing one of our last bastions providing us with ESSENTIAL omega-3’s.

Superior Aquaculture stands ready to assist those who might be interested in exploring alternative options.

 

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Hatchery Bred Salmon Survival 10 to 20 Times Less Than Wild

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Hatchery Bred Salmon Survival 10 to 20 Times Less Than Wild

“Billions of hatchery-bred juvenile salmon are released…every year, and their survival is between 10 and 20 times less than that of wild salmon.” (Reimer and Dodd, Scientific Reports, 2016.) Could this be related to our last 2 releases, i.e. hearing deformities, lower omega-3 content in fish, and reduced omega-3 content in fish feeds? 

Look for our next release focused on what all this means for the planet’s top predator

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Hatchery Bred Salmon Found Hearing Impaired

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Hatchery Bred Salmon Found Hearing Impaired

As many as half of the world’s hatchery-bred salmon have trouble hearing, according to a study published recently in Scientific Reports. The hearing loss is owing to a deformity of the sagittal otolith, the primary hearing structure of the inner ear. Could this be tied to the omega-3, fish feed deficiencies described in our previous release? (Source: WHITE PAPER, SPECIAL Hatchery and Fisheries Research Report,  Warecki, J; June 2016.)

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Superior Aquaculture to Provide 50% Increase in Omega-3’s

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Superior Aquaculture to Provide 50% Increase in Omega-3’s

Recent studies show that Superior Aquaculture’s (SA’s) “In Pond Floating Raceway Systems” (IPFRS) can potentially increase the omega-3 content of many farmed fish by about 50%.  This follows on the heels of a recent study by Stirling University that reveals that, “…the amount of omega-3 fatty acid (an anti-oxidant) in farmed salmon in the UK has decreased by 50% in the past 10 years”.

This means that consumers would now need to consume twice as much salmon to obtain the same amount of omega-3’s as they did 10 years ago. The cause is linked to less fish and more pro-inflammatory soybeans in commercial fish feeds.

SA’s system allows for capture and feeding of live, wild, omega-3 rich, zooplankton and phytoplankton while reducing the fertility of the surrounding water. Plankton processing can yield massive amounts of high-value nutrients and oils for a wide array of human health and animal feed supplements. Reader inquiries are welcomed.

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As Seen In Fish Farming News!

Thanks again to ”Fish Farming News” and their recent article providing further in-sights into some of the early pioneers of Floating In-pond Raceways.

More significantly, we would like to thank Bob Robinson of Fish Farming News for his most current, independent assessment of today’s new-age, In-pond Raceway Systems.

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Mosquito and Zika Virus Control Via In-Pond Floating, Fish Raceways

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Mosquito and Zika Virus Control Via In-Pond Floating, Fish Raceways


By:  Jay Warecki, Ph.D.
Director, Medical Research Education Associates
Director, Superior Aquaculture, LLC


The U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have reported that mosquito control measures are now the most effective means of controlling the spread of the Zika virus, West Nile virus, plus dengue, and yellow fever.  Mosquito control and related public health issues will become increasingly significant in the immediate future, and effective counter-measures should become everyone’s priority.

Pond owners may soon view their once-beautiful ponds near their homes as the breeding grounds for disease – especially as our climatic and global weather patterns change.  Environmental health problems of the tropics and sub-tropics are rapidly becoming the problems of the mid-latitudes.

Mosquito control via species and size-specific stocking of fish has long been a main-stay of public health efforts in tropical and sub-tropical regions, including parts of the Southeastern U.S.  Maintaining such stockings in appropriate densities, however, can become a difficult challenge.

Floating In-Pond Raceways™ developed by Superior Aquaculture, LLC offer new and impressive options for owners of all surface waters, e.g. ponds, marshes, reservoirs, or estuaries, who are interested in sustainable, affordable, and non-chemical solutions to mosquito control.

Fish stocked in open ponds tend to favor localized areas such as shorelines, for feeding. But…mosquito larvae tend to cover the entire pond.  This normally results in less than optimal mosquito larvae predation.

In-Pond Floating Raceways accomplish outstanding mosquito control through two mechanisms:

  1. Widespread pond circulating that eliminates stagnant water, and
  2. Concentrated larvae capture and delivery to high-density, larvae-loving fish.

Major pond circulation is a “free” by-product of the raceway system that uses highly efficient, low-head, airlifts to move pond water through the floating raceways.  Highly energy efficient water movement not only brings fresh, oxygenated pond water, larvae, and other ‘’planktonic candy” to the ever-appreciative, larvae-loving fish in the raceways, but with flow rates as much as 10,000 gallons per minute per raceway, it can have a major impact on improving the pond’s water quality – including the reduction of blue-green algae. The raceway system’s sediment collection pods near the exit ends collect the uneaten fish feed and feces.

Since the above floating raceway system is designed to operate as a cutting-edge, income-producing technology of almost any size, mosquito larvae control and its impact on reducing the Zika virus and other mosquito-borne illness is a no-cost bonus for personal and public health.

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Why Invest in Aquaculture?

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Why Invest in Aquaculture?

Well-informed investments in intense, outdoor, surface water aquaculture may be essential for the planet. While surface water covers about 75% of the earth, it now produces only 2% of its food. Commercial fish stocks are in peril and cannot help. Still, it’s projected that the world will need to produce 50% more food by 2050.

A major part of the solution may be found in widespread establishment of what’s called Integrated Multi-tropic Aquaculture (IMTA). Superior Aquaculture is at the cutting-edge of this technology.

Briefly, here’s how it works. Happy, schooling fish are grown fairly intensely and fed in Superior’s floating, in-pond (salt or freshwater) raceways. Most of the uneaten feed and feces are captured and re-cycled. The soluble nutrients contained in the fish urine, which escapes to the water, is absorbed by the algae. The pond’s algae acts like a biological solar collector, absorbing the light energy and CO2 from the air. The algae then converts the CO2 and absorbed nutrients to chemical energy, oxygen, water, and very valuable (essential) nutrients, especially omega-3’s.

If that wasn’t enough, the algae also feeds the much larger zooplankton, which with the algae, can be collected as by-products of the raceway operation. The use of these valuable products is almost unlimited.

Zooplankton (on left) grown for young fry or fingerlings in adjacent raceway.

Use of the captured zooplankton and algae as on-farm feed supplements is proven to reduce the amount of commercial feed needed, reduce the amount of the fishmeal component sometimes needed, improve feed conversion ratios (FCR’s) to sometimes less than 1:1, strengthen fish autoimmune systems, improve growth rates, and even to provide healthier, omega-3-enriched fish for human consumption.

As commercial fish feeds continuously become more soy and cottonseed-based, their high levels of pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative omega-6’s, which can lead to fatty liver disease in fish and diabetes in humans, must be countered by increased levels of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant omega-3’s.

In Summary: IMTA (when practiced wisely) solar energy capture, CO2 reduction, O2 production (about 75% of world’s total), energy, cleaner water, reduced need for wild fish for fish feed; essential nutrient production, capture, and use; healthier, faster-growing fish, plus a healthier, more neurologically appropriate population.

(Extreme due diligence is advised for all aquaculture investments.)

 

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Hands-on Customer Service - Moving Off Shore

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Hands-on Customer Service - Moving Off Shore

Customer Service that keeps on giving.  Dr Jay (in bright green) and Bonnie (naturally with camera) volunteer 4 days of time to assist Native American tribe - three years after raceway purchase.  

“We had a GREAT time fellowshipping and assisting other volunteers in this community-building activity.  This is what we’re really all about”, said Dr. Jay.

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U.S. Trout Farmers Association – Highly Recommended

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U.S. Trout Farmers Association – Highly Recommended

The U.S. Trout Farmers Association (USTFA), truly a leadership group for all fish farmers.  What an incredible conference, hosted by Peter Fritsch at Rushing Waters Trout Farm in Wisconsin!

The background photo characterizes the servant leadership role of so many in this group – in this case preparing another rack of grilled fish for attendees.

Superior Aquaculture strongly encourages all of its valued customers and prospects to join-up with the many other USTFA farmers, most of which have a long history of successful raceway use.

 

For more info on USTFA, contact: Tom Ellis, (919) 909-1943, ustroutfarmersassociation@gmail.com

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How to Reduce Phosphorus Discharge from Fish Farms (Summary)

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How to Reduce Phosphorus Discharge from Fish Farms (Summary)

Compiled by: Jay Warecki, Ph.D.
Director, Superior Aquaculture, LLC
(Report Released Sept., 2015)

  1. Fish Feed is normally the largest source of phosphorus to aquaculture systems.
  2. Approximately 70% of the phosphorus consumed can pass in feces. (Hakanson, et al. 1990)
  3. Similarly, Brown found that, “…the collected and dried waste from the raceways equaled 70.8% of the dry weight fed.”  (Brown, 2010)
  4. Additionally, in many cases, only 50 % of the total nutrients fed are utilized by the fish.
  5. Superior Floating Raceways offer the ability to effectively capture and remove, either automatically or manually, some huge percentage of the nutrient-rich feces.
  6. Specially integrated sediment collection pods are available and recommended.
  7. Because phosphorus rapidly leaches from feces, the feces should be removed every 6-36 hours, depending upon load, feed qualities, temperature, pH, etc.  (kabria, et al. 1997)
  8. Collected feces can be used in aquaponics, de-watered and fed to other animals, or used in fertilizers, mulch, etc.
  9. In addition to feces collection, the system also collects virtually all uneaten, settleable feed – which contains additional phosphorus.
  10. Uneaten feed and feces, “… are believed to contain most of their phosphorus in a water soluble, unstable form readily available to plants.”  (Butz and Vens-Cappell, 1982)
  11. While soluble reactive phosphorus in the form of fish urine may be minor in comparison to feces, it should be mitigated as possible.
  12. When Superior Floating Raceways are used in a pond setting, the soluble reactive phosphorus from the urine can be absorbed by macrophytes, algae, and bottom sediments – which can be quite acceptable when within reason.
  13. However, Superior Raceways offer the farmer a means of collecting the dissolved fraction of P once it has been absorbed by the algae. The fact is that the raceways serve as excellent “traps” for both algae and valuable zooplankton.
  14. “The phosphorus collected in the raceways was actually greater (138%) than the total phosphorus fed in the fish feed.”  (Brown, 2010)  This was attributed to the phosphorus in the lipid-rich algae and valuable and zooplankton.
  15. Further reductions in raceway nutrient discharge can be achieved by the addition of in-line, small particle, collection modules – as commonly used in in-door RAS operations.
  16. Fish farm settling ponds offer opportunities for both increased levels of phosphorus extraction and potential production expansions.

To discuss your potential application or to view the “complete report”, give us a call or contact us by email.


References
Brown, Travis. 2010. Intensive Culture…in a Commercial-Scale, In-Pond Raceway. Ph.D. Dissertation, Auburn University.

Butz, I. & Vens-Cappell, 1982. Organic load from metabolic products of rainbow trout fed with dry food. In Albaster, J.S. (ed), Report of the EIFAC Workshop on Fish Farm Effluents, EIFAC Tech. Pap. 41:57-70.

Kibria, G.D. Nugegoda, R. Fairclough, & P. Lam. Hydrobiologia 357: 165-171, 1997. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

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Reducing Phosphorus Discharge With Superior Fish Raceways

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Reducing Phosphorus Discharge With Superior Fish Raceways

Research Report #1 (2004-2006):

Source: State of Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection Grant Project Final Report, Contract Number 18013, Submitted June 2004.

Project Director: Christopher Hartleb, Ph.D.
Chairman, U.W.-Stevens Point Dept. of Aquaculture
Director, Wis. Northern Aquaculture Demonstration Center

 

The results of this study have been presented at/included in:

  • World Aquaculture Conference (February, 2004)
  • Aquaculture Magazine (Jan/Feb 2004)
  • American Fisheries Society Annual Meeting (August 2004)
  • An additional Wis. ADD Grant (with similar findings, 2006)
  • Best Management Practices for Aquaculture in Wisconsin.

 

(Excerpt from above report)

“Water quality parameters showed little variation within the raceway and between the raceway and reservoir. Total suspended solids, pH, hardness and alkalinity showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) among the inflow, mid-raceway, outflow and reservoir. TSS averaged 0.0048 mg/L in the reservoir and 0.0053 mg/L in the raceway; pH ranged from 6.8–7.3 at all sites during the study; hardness and alkalinity averaged 171 mg/L and 67 mg/L at all sites throughout the study, respectively. Secchi depth was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the four sampling locations, but was consistently lower at the mid-raceway site (1.1 m), when compared to the average of the other three locations (1.3 m). The automatic feeder and belt feeder for each raceway was located close to the mid-raceway sampling location; the release of feed and yellow perch activity at this location most likely contributed to the decreased visibility. Likewise, the turbidity showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) among the four sampling locations, but was consistently higher at the mid-raceway sampling location (mid-raceway 5.1 NTU, with an average of 4.4 NTU for the other three sampling locations). The feeder location and fish activity most likely contributed to this slight difference as well. Temperature in the reservoir showed isothermal conditions with respect to depth (max. depth 23 ft (7 m)) throughout the study and averaged 72° F (22.4° C) in July, 75° F (24° C) in August, 63° F (17.4° C) in September, and 55° F (12.9° C) in October.

Dissolved oxygen showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between inflow and mid-raceway and between outflow and reservoir, but DO was significantly different (P < 0.05) between those two groups of locations. The outflow and reservoir DO averaged 9.5 ppm for most of the summer, but the inflow and mid-raceway averaged 8 ppm, with DO decreasing to 5-6 ppm in late July to mid-August. This coincided with the warmest water temperatures and, during this period, the yellow perch often were seen crowding the front of the raceway near the intake pipes where higher DO and slightly lower temperatures occurred.

Crowding increased the oxygen demand per volume of water and decreased the DO in the front half of the raceway. Airstones lined the raceway and reoxygenated the water near the outflow, yet slightly warmer temperatures deterred most of the perch from occupying the discharge end of the raceways.

Nitrogen and phosphorus were monitored during the study to model the exchange of nutrients between the raceway and reservoir. There was no significant difference in the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) between the reservoir and three raceway locations for most of the growing season. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) levels of ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen were found in the reservoir the week of September 4. Significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of nitrate-nitrogen were found in the reservoir the week of July 24 and in the inflow water the week of August 8. At no time did the ammonia, nitrite and nitrate concentrations exceed the tolerance limit for yellow perch. Though the levels of these compounds were slightly higher at these dates and locations, there was no clear explanation for the increase and it did not appear to affect the growth and survival of the yellow perch.”


Research Report #2:

Source: “Culture of Yellow Perch, Bluegill, & Hybrid Bluegill Sunfish in Mobile Floating Raceways”, by Christopher Harleb, Ph.D., funded by WI Dept. of Ag (ADD-Program), 2006.

Average Water Chemistry Conditions in Ponds and Raceways for 14-18 Weeks


Research Report #3:

Source:  “Intensive Culture…in a Commercial-Scale, In-Pond Raceway” by Travis Brown, Ph.D. Dissertation, Auburn Univ., 2010.

Note:  This report is of a large-scale, high-flow rate, warm water, commercial in-pond raceway system (IPRS) with a very heavy fish density and “quiet zone” for settling solids.

“It is obvious that solid matter settled, and was collected in the waste trough since about 70.8% of total dry matter as comparative weight to feed fed was removed after the 24-h period.  About 17%, 137%, and 25% of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and carbon were also collected and removed from the settling area, respectively.”

Compiler’s note:  The >100% of phosphorus collected in the above study is further substantiation that in-pond raceway systems can actually collect more nutrients in the form of algae and zooplankton than they emit from the fish feed.

Research Reports #4-7:

“Studies have shown that FIPR (Floating In-pond Raceway)* have better water quality than the surrounding pond’s surface water in terms of dissolved oxygen, temperature and consistency (Hartleb, 2004; Mazer and Lazur, 1997; Morrison et al, 1995).”  Source:  (Rachel McLemore Regan. Bio-economic Factors…; Master’s Thesis, Auburn University, 2011.)

 

Summary:

In-pond raceway systems (IPRS), at almost any flow rate, are actually “sinks” for many nutrients, especially for the collection of phosphorus in algae and zooplankton.  This is part of the reason why raceway emissions may often be of superior quality when compared to the surrounding waters.  Superior Raceways provide adjustments for entry and exit water heights and flow rates which greatly reduce raceway emissions.  Additionally, Superior Raceways are the only known manufacturer to offer the option of separate, out-of-raceway, “collection pods” that can be attached to raceway exit ends.  Timely removal of sediments via automatic pool cleaners (on a timer) and/or manual cleaning can help assure minimal nutrient leaching and emissions.

Native flora and fauna, including bacteria within the pond, plus sunlight and wind are normally able to maintain a quality water environment which is critical to any aquaculture success.

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U.S. Catfish Farming - Lowering Your Operating Costs

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U.S. Catfish Farming - Lowering Your Operating Costs

Catfish farming in the U.S. represents, by far, the largest segment of U.S. aquaculture (46%) and often leads the way in research and technology. Recent research, much of it coming from Auburn University’s Dept. of Fisheries & Allied Aquacultures, strongly supports the advantages of using in-pond raceways over the traditional 6 acre pond culture.

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